Temporal resolution is chiefly determined by the image frame rate of the system (measured in Hertz), which may vary depending on a number of factors. Overall, an increased frame rate equates to an increased likelihood of discerning rapid movements (e.g. valve leaflets in echocardiography), and thus improved temporal resolution 1 .e., cine imaging Nuclear medicine versus radiology: general considerations (image characteristics, dosimetry) noise and poor spatial resolution (acceptable temporal resolution) BUT it has linearity (which comes very useful for quantifying) it has sensitivity US may be helpful for perfusio European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - When considering the length of frames which should be reconstructed, a tradeoff has to be made between temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of the resulting image sequence 336 Physics in Nuclear Medicine Example 16-2. Calculate the resolution (FWHM) of the low-energy collimator described in Example 16-1, at source depths b = 0 and b = 10 cm, assuming it has a septal thickness of 0.03 cm. Answer. The effective length of the collimator is Ie = 2.5 cm - (2/21.43) cm = 2.4 cm Thus, for b = 0 Rc = 0.25(2.4 + 0)/2.4 cm.
Wolfgang A. Weber and Johannes Czernin. Scientific discoveries published in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine over the past 60 years have shaped the practice of medicine and form the foundation for the future of nuclear medicine, molecular imaging, and theranostics. Nuclear medicine now provides diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and intermediate endpoint biomarkers in oncology, cardiology. It is often measured clinically via frequency and duration pattern tests in which patients are asked to verbalize the order of a sequence of three tones. 2. Temporal discrimination or resolution refers to the shortest time in which a person can discriminate between two auditory signals. For brief sounds, this is generally in the area of 2-3 msec Temporal resolution is the ability to demonstrate changes in radiopharmaceutical distribution over time. Therefore, this is a factor in dynamic and multiple-gated acquisitions, both of which acquire data in sequential frames These newer techniques have the potential to evaluate simultaneously and quantitatively RV and LV size and function, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Elegant first-pass techniques have been developed to evaluate intraventricular shunts quantitatively; the need for these is relatively uncommon, and they are described elsewhere. Barium fluoride (BaF~ crystals can be used as scintillators for PET due to their fast temporal resolution. In comparing the crystals, the detection efficiency decreases in the rank order BGO > BaFz > NaI, whereas the resolving time decreases as BaF2 > NaI > BGO (4)
These include the low temporal resolution, failure to perform optimal arrhythmia rejection, and poor edge detection due to the low information density contained in the perfusion data. In Nuclear Medicine (Fourth Edition), 2014. Gated Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Spatial resolution in nuclear medicine is a significant limiting factor in its imaging performance. The resolution is limited by factors such as the collimator characteristics, gamma energy, scatter and the sodium iodide (NaI) crystal and the influence of all of these needs to be recognized and understood, especially if there is a suspicion of. Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses radioactive tracers (radiopharmaceuticals) to assess bodily functions and to diagnose and treat disease. Specially designed cameras allow doctors to track the path of these radioactive tracers
Nuclear cardiology with radionuclide ventriculography is commonly used to measure ventricular function by measuring the LVEF, but it has relatively low spatial and temporal resolution, and preparation and scanning times are relatively prolonged.22 In addition, ventricular volumes are difficult to measure and are rarely performed clinically (though they are used occasionally for research), 3,23 and ventricular mass cannot be obtained Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is widely implemented in nuclear medicine as its clinical role in the diagnosis and management of several diseases is, many times, very helpful (e.g., myocardium perfusion imaging). The quality of SPECT images are degraded by several factors such as noise because of the limited number of counts, attenuation, or scatter of photons 521 Objectives: Glucose transport is a vital component of the metabolic process. The rate of glucose transport from plasma to tissue cells can be quantified using dynamic 18F-FDG PET via the estimation of the K1 parameter in compartmental modeling. However, the accuracy of K1 quantification may be compromised by the assumption of standard compartmental modeling that radiotracer is.
Nuclear medicine relies on two imaging modalities to assess internal function and diagnose disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) typically uses fluorine-18, a radiotracer that releases.. Nuclear Medicine. Rotation 1. Knowledge Based Objectives. At the end of the rotation, the resident should be able to: Demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the clinical indications, general procedures (including radiopharmaceutical and dose), and scintigraphic findings in: Pulmonary (emboli) ventilation and perfusion imaging
The Force is With Us: Reviewing the Power of our Latest CT Scanner. One of our radiation technologists prepares our new Siemens Somatom Force CT scanner for a patient. A typical day in the life of a CT scanner at the hospital is a busy one: 20 chest scans, 35 head, spine and neck scans, 2-3 cardiac scans, 20 abdomen scans, 10 angiograms and 2-3. N2 - Advances in multidetector CT (MDCT) technology with submillimeter slice collimation and high temporal resolution permit contrast-enhanced imaging of coronary arteries and coronary plaque during a single breath hold. Appropriate patient preparation, detailed technical and technological knowledge with regard to recognition of typical imaging. PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the trade-off between temporal and spatial resolution in dynamic contrast material-enhanced bilateral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were obtained. An intraindividual comparative study was performed in 30 patients (mean age, 53 years; age range, 27-70 years. Temporal resolution and the evaluation of candidate algorithms for four-dimensional CT. Katsuyuki Taguchi, CT and Nuclear Medicine Development Department, Medical Systems Research & Development Center, Medical Systems Company, Toshiba Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550, Japan
2 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan. 3 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, ERNA has the advantages of higher temporal resolution, greater reproducibility, and the volumetric analysis of both ventricles. , 29:193-207 Keywords: molecular imaging, PET, SPECT, sensitivity, spatial resolution, temporal resolution aDepartment of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA and bDivision of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerlan The energy resolution (expressed as the percentage full width at half maximum [FWHM] of the photopeak) should be checked at least quarterly using a reference-source radionuclide such as 57 Co. Electronic noise and ambient radiation levels, which may be relatively high and variable in a nuclear medicine facility, will produce a nonzero and. Radionuclide imaging has an advantage for quantitative analyses of the tracer concentration and its temporal changes. Myocardial perfusion and function have been adapted for synchrony analyses. Extracted parameters have been demonstrated to measure ventricular synchrony and even to predict CRT outcomes. ERNA has the advantages of higher temporal resolution, greater reproducibility, and the.
The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) is an international scientific and professional organization founded in 1954 to promote the science, technology, and practical application of nuclear medicine. Its 18,000 members are physicians, technologists, and scientists specializing in the research and practice of nuclear medicine . Affected by crystal thickness, gamma ray energy, scatter in crystal. • Collimator resolution (R coll ) refers to how well the collimator localizes the gamma ray source in the patient, affected by hole. Nuclear Medicine. We are a vibrant, innovative section within the Department of Radiology whose mission is to provide state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic patient studies, further clinical and basic science nuclear and molecular research, and serve as an important educational resource both within the University and community at large
CHAPTER 56 Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Ventricular Function. Bennett Chin, Kenneth J. Nichols. Left ventricular (LV) function is an important, well-established indicator of patient prognosis. Radionuclide imaging techniques are established as the most highly reproducible methods to assess LV ejection fraction noninvasively Dynamic Image Reconstructionin Nuclear Medicine. Static. PET maps the sympathetic nervous system with superior temporal and spatial resolution. Spatial resolution of 4-7mm. Temporal resolution allows for development of dynamic images which can be used to assess tracer kinetics The anatomy and pathology of the temporal bone involve small structures; resolution is thus highly important. Collimation is of optimal importance to achieve high resolution. We routinely use a collimator of 0.6 mm and most commercially available units can be collimated to at least 1 mm. Collimation wider than 1 mm is not usually used, as the.
Nuclear medicine Psychiatry Radiation oncology Radiological Rheumatology Medical Genetics Medical Oncology Surgical Medical Sciences Anesthesiology and Reanimation Neurosurgery Pediatric Surgery Gastroenterology Surgery General Surgery. General clinical nuclear medicine procedures: utilizing conventional, single photon radioisotopes our physicians provide state of the art imaging including SPECT-CT hybrid fusion imaging for a wide range of clinical needs including: brain (neuroreceptor (I-123 dopamine and Tc-99m blood flow), thyroid, parathyroid, lung, cardiac, renal, adrenal.
Among them, 14 patients (93%) were discharged from the hospital before the end of the study and four discharged patients (27%) had complete resolution of lung abnormalities on the final CT scans. For the remaining 75 patients (303 CT scans), bilateral lesions were present in 257 of the 303 scans (85%) Principles of nuclear cardiology 1. Principles of nuclear cardiology 2. History • Hermann blumgart-1927-injected radon to measure circulation time • Liljestrand-1939-normal blood volume • Myron prinzmetal-1948- radiolabelled albumin • Hal anger-1952-gamma camera-beginning of clinical nuclear cardiology • 1976-thallium201-two dimensional planar imagin
Taguchi K and Anno H. High temporal resolution for multi-slice helical computed tomography. Medical Physics. Vol. 27, No. 5, May 2000, pp. 861-872. Taguchi K. Temporal resolution and the evaluation of candidate algorithms for four-dimensional CT. Medical Physics. Vol. 30, No. 4, April 2003, pp. 640-650 Start studying Computers In Nuclear Medicine Final (ch. 10, 11). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools
New Nuclear Medicine System Designed to Advance Precision Health and Theranostics. GE Healthcare has unveiled StarGuide, the company's next-generation SPECT/CT system designed to help advance precision health and support greater theranostic capabilities in nuclear medicine. The next-generation system uses the latest digital technologies to. A contemporary path model for the resolution of cultural and biological inheritance is extended to incorporate temporal variation in family resemblance. Specifically, the genetic and environmental effects, like all other parameters of the model, are allowed to vary over an individual's age according to some specific mathematical functions High temporal resolution results from the use of dual X-ray and detector systems. In flash mode an examination of the chest, abdomen and pelvis can be completed in 10-12 seconds. The flash scanner is especially beneficial for patients who may experience low back pain or shortness of breath when lying down or patients who may have high or.
Figure 1. Tau accumulation over one year measured in composite A) mesial temporal ROI; and B) temporoparietal ROI in cognitively unimpaired participants (blue) and cognitively impaired participants (red).The CI group included participants with clinical mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Higher rates of tau accumulation were observed in participants on the AD continuum (CU Aβ+ve and CI. 022. 1987. Rotating Scintillation Camera SPECT Acceptance Testing and Quality Control. 'Nuclear Medicine' found in Summary, Committee/Notes, Keywords. AAPM Reports are based on sources and information believed to be reliable, but AAPM and the editors disclaim any warranty or liability based on or relating to the contents of this publication Temporal Bone CT: Improved Image Quality and Potential for Decreased Radiation Dose Using an Ultra-High-Resolution Scan Mode with an Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm Shuai Leng, Felix E. Diehn, John I. Lane, K.K. Koeller, Robert J. Witte, Rickey E. Carter, Cynthia H. McCollough> ;American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2015 Sep Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography: What it is, how it works, advantages and disadvantages in Nuclear Medicine. Cost: SPECT ~US$500,000; PET ~US$1M - $2M. PET has the possibility for quantification of tracer concentration in absolute units- accurately quantifies in terms of local activity concentration (MBq/ml) Precession of nuclear angular momentum (L) of proton about the direction of static magnetic field (H 0 ). NMR image of the normal human brain, showing vivid distinction between gray and white matter
1. EJNMMI Res. 2017 Dec;7(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s13550-016-0249-9. Epub 2017 Mar 7. New approaches for the reliable in vitro assessment of binding affinity based on high-resolution real-time data acquisition of radioligand-receptor binding kinetics Nuclear medicine supports development of technologies that create images using gamma-ray (SPECT) or positron (PET) emissions from radioactive biological agents. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering | A part of the NIH focused on creating biomedical technologies to improve health Ian Armstrong | Manchester Area, United Kingdom | Principal Physicist : Nuclear Medicine : Manchester University Foundation Trust Secretary, EANM Physics Committee | Principal physicist in nuclear medicine with 15 years experience. | 500+ connections | View Ian's homepage, profile, activity, article Biograph Vision can help you optimize your clinical operations with quality images and efficient workflow. With the market's highest effective sensitivity at 100 cps/kBq 3 and the fastest time-of flight in the industry 4 Biograph Vision can not only reduce scan time and injected dose to boost productivity, it can also improve image quality. Combined with FlowMotion, it is designed to reduce.
Read chapter 270e of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e online now, exclusively on AccessMedicine. Noninvasive cardiac imaging: echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, and magnetic resonance/computed tomography imaging. Kasper D, Fauci A, Hauser S, it is still used because of its high temporal resolution and accuracy for. . If possible, this should include high resolution MRI (with particular attention paid to the mesial temporal cortex) and nuclear imaging functional renal imaging, with a focus on nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging. Even with low spatial resolution and rather poor signal-to-noise ratio, classical nuclear medicine has the advantage of linearity and good sensitivity. It remains the gold standard technique for renal relative functional assessment. Technetium-99m (99mTc) Nuclear medicine techniques have a sensitivity of approximately 85% to 90% in the localization of an epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe epilepsy; however, in this clinical SPECT, provide separate information on the temporal and spatial resolution of the epileptogenic focus. Ideally, the best information can be obtained by correlating the.
Lawrence J. Ellison Ambulatory Care Center. 4860 Y St., Suite 3100. Sacramento, CA 95817. Driving Directions. Primary Phone: Additional Phone Numbers. Fax: 916-734-8490. Physician Referrals: 800-4-UCDAVIS (800-482-3284) Social Networking Presentation Title. Response assessment and immune-related adverse events as detected by FDG PET/CT in patients treated with combined CTLA-4 and PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors as first-line therapy in advanced melanoma. Conference or Meeting Name. Society of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging Annual Meeting Interesting cases and teaching files from radiology cases used for educating faculty, fellows and residents. Our radiology teaching file system (TFS) is free software developed under the RSNA MIRC project that gives users the ability to author, manage, store and share radiology teaching files locally or across institutions 5-Minute Nuclear Medicine Scanner Now Live. June 3rd, 2009. Medgadget Editors Nuclear Medicine. but maintaining high stopping power to deliver improved energy, spatial and temporal resolution.. Nanotechnology-enabled nuclear reprogramming and cell therapies. development of virus-free nanotechnology-based approaches to controllably reprogram cells and tissues for regenerative medicine applications. Such systems can enable single-cellular and molecular biointerrogation with high spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Center for Advanced Imaging Research (CAIR) Phone: 410-706-2797 This aim of this project is to use deep machine learning to improve spatial and temporal resolution and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of ASL perfusion MRI Instead, this reconstruction technique became the default method for nuclear medicine emission tomography imaging modalities with lower spatial and temporal resolution, such as single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography, because of the smaller data volumes and less complex data handling (12). The less perfect, albeit much faster. Read chapter 236 of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e online now, exclusively on AccessMedicine. Noninvasive cardiac imaging: echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, and magnetic resonance/computed tomography imaging. it is still used because of its high temporal resolution and accuracy for making linear measurements.
SCIAEON Journal of Radiology (SJR) aims to communicate clinical and technical aspects of radiology, radiotherapy, medical imaging, oncology, radiobiology and medical physics. It includes basic and clinical investigations in diagnostic imaging, focusing on magnetic resonance, new ultrasound techniques, digital angiography, computed tomography and other new innovative techniques American Board of Nuclear Medicine Nuclear Medicine; Awards, Honors, & Recognition. CMS Meaningful Use Stage 1 Certification EpicCare Ambulatory EMR, Epic Systems Corporation, 2013; Clinical Trials. Phase I Study of the Safety, Distribution, and Radiation Dosimetry of Ultratrace Iobenguane 123I-mIBG-Nanodosing: the Path to Higher Sensitivity and Lower Toxicity Radiopharmaceuticals Start of.
motion with high-temporal resolution. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 60:942-950, 2004. 10. Paganetti H, Jiang H, Trofimov A. 4D Monte Carlo simulation of proton beam scanning: modeling of variations in time and space to study the interplay between canning pattern and time-dependent patient geometry ASL can be repeated as often as needed and its intrinsic temporal resolution is on the order of a few seconds. ASL can be acquired with good SNR at spatial resolution better than any nuclear medicine technique and with absolute quantification. Because timing can be used to limit the vascula A growing number of nuclear medicine departments in Europe are now using a new generation of gamma cameras for cardiac imaging. Novel iterative reconstruction methods with resolution recovery and noise reduction provide higher fast scanner rotation with high temporal resolution has been important, as it permits prospectively. In Nuclear Medicine department, PET/CT and SPECT Gamma camera devices are available. PET/CT equipment has Time of Flight technology with high temporal resolution. In these modern systems, better resolution and superior image quality are obtained with PET/CT images with giving lower radiation. The cardiovascular system, skeleton system, thyroid. Molecular imaging has revolutionized diagnostic imaging by utilizing high spatial and temporal resolution, significantly improving sensitivity and specificity. Because of increasing knowledge of cardiovascular biology and advances in imaging technologies, molecular imaging has become an essential tool in the fields of cardiovascular medicine
This high temporal resolution tracer imaging technique opens up the opportunity for new applications, such as studying fast pharmacodynamics, using shorter-lived radionuclides (e.g., 82 Rb, 13 N, and 15 O), and performing motion-frozen scans of the heart, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Although many current clinical imaging systems, such as. Depending on different hospitals, two types of brain nuclear imaging are available. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is a tomographic test (3 D slices) available in all nuclear medicine departments since it's done with conventional gamma cameras. It uses a blood flow tracer with technetium-99m to image brain perfusion A LFOV gamma camera with a low energy, all purpose or high resolution parallel hole collimator interfaced to a nuclear medicine computer system is preferred. The camera's analyzer is set at 140 keV with a 15% or 20% window For improved diagnostic quality of nuclear medicine scans with hi-resolution CT for localization and attenuation correction. To accommodate patients of all sizes with its 80-cm bore size. For department and staff efficiency with faster 3D imaging than conventional analog camera protocol Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique that uses radioactive substances known as radiotracers to visualize and measure changes in metabolic processes, and in other physiological activities including blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.Different tracers are used for various imaging purposes, depending on the target process within the body
The DaTscan once started takes approximately 30-45 minutes. However, following injection of the DaT agent approximately 3-6 hours are required before the agent has achieved appropriate concentration in the brain. One hour before the exam, you will receive a drug to allow you to safely take the iodine required for the scan Variability and reproducibility of rubidium-82 kinetic parameters in the myocardium of the anesthetized canine. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 36:2, pp. 287-296, February 1995. Eberling JL, Nordahl TE, Kusubov N, Reed BR, Budinger TF and Jagust WJ. Reduced temporal lobe glucose metabolism in aging Nuclear medicine imaging. Nuclear medicine is used in oncology imaging to diagnose, plan, and respond to treatment. In these modalities, specific radiopharmaceuticals are injected intravenously and images that indicate drug uptake in organs are collected in scintillation . Generally, nuclear breast imaging is performed in two ways: single.
Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan temporal resolution, 3.65 sec/frame; spatial resolution, 0.9 × 1.3 × 2.5 mm. Two readers analyzed 19 maximum intensity projection images reconstructed from subtracted images, separately identified breast arteries/veins and the. The temporal resolution is nominally the same for both the dynamic RA and the IRIS data (200 ms), but the spatial resolution for the IRIS data is 16× greater and the SNR in the lung parenchyma (12.5 vs. 8.0) for dynamic RA and IRIS, respectively, is only 1.56× less
Dr. Thomas J. Brady is a nuclear medicine specialist in Boston, Temporal Resolution of Dynamic Angiography Using Flat Panel Volume CT: In Vivo Evaluation of Time-Dependent Vascular Pathologies With its high temporal and spatial resolution and relatively low radiation exposure, positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being used in Liked by Faraji Sabaya. This is awesome ! -Radiation protection to patients and other personnels around the Nuclear Medicine department
A method is presented that improves the temporal resolution for a dynamic region by a factor, n, while maintaining spatial resolution at a cost of √n in signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR). Temporal resolution is improved, or alternatively, total imaging time is reduced by reducing the number of phase encodes acquired for each temporal frame by 1/n Dr. Riham El Khouli is a nuclear medicine specialist in Lexington, Relationship of temporal resolution to diagnostic performance for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the breast Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 10, Route 766, Nijmegen, Gelderland, 6500 HB the Netherlands. contrast-agent uptake in computer-aided diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution DCE-MRI
Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, and Department of Imaging and Pathology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. J Nucl Med 2020; 61:1014-1020 PET/CT Imaging with an 18 F-Labeled Galactodendritic Unit in a Galectin-1-Overexpressing Orthotopic Bladder Cancer Mode Nuclear medicine is the study and utilization of radioactive compounds in medicine to image and treat human disease. the whole body distribution of the radioactive compound often acquired as a sequence of images over time showing the temporal course of the radiotracer in the body. -Resolution and sensitivity are terms used to describe. In all cases motion-suspended, time-resolved volume data sets (40 x 33 x 10 cm 3, voxel size: 2.1 x 2.1 x 5.0 mm 3) were generated with a variable, initially high temporal resolution (2.25 sec) that was synchronized with the breath pattern and covered up to 8(1)/(2) min. In 7 / 20 cases a remaining offset could be reduced by rigid co-registration
during Nuclear Medicine Imaging MojtabaJafariTadi, 1,2 TeroKoivisto, 1 MikkoPänkäälä, 1 andAriPaasio 1 Technology Research Center, Brahea Center, University of Turku,Turku, Finland such as imperfect temporal resolution in cardiac imaging, supplementary stress on patients, and unsatisfactory patient comfort during long data processing. The degradation in image resolution harms the performance of medical image diagnosis. By inferring high-frequency details from low-resolution (LR) images, super-resolution (SR) techniques can introduce additional knowledge and assist high-level tasks. In this paper, we propose a SR enhanced diagnosis framework, consisting of an efficient SR network and a diagnosis network. Specifically, a. rate neuroradiologists (for MR) and nuclear medicine physicians (for PET). The two MR studies were interpreted separately from each other by each of the neuroradiologists. PET attenuation correction was per-formed using vendor-provided two-point Dixon-VIBE method. For in-terpretation, PET was fused to the highest-resolution MR sequenc Conventionally, shielding calculation in nuclear medicine was facilitated with half-value layer (HVL), tenth-value layer (TVL) or the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL e ). Strictly speaking, the TVL e should be used in shielding calculation as the emission spectra from the radionuclide are very rarely mono-energetic Read Simultaneous functional MRI acquisition of distributed brain regions with high temporal resolution using a 2D‐selective radiofrequency excitation, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips
motion with high-temporal resolution. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 60:942-950, 2004. 10. Paganetti H, Jiang H, Trofimov A. 4D Monte Carlo simulation of proton beam scanning: modeling of variations in time and space to study the interplay between canning pattern and time-dependent patient geometry